Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a condition where veins of the retina become blocked, causing a leakage of blood and plasma into the retinal tissue. The bleeding known as a haemorrhage and swelling (oedema) in the retina can trigger symptoms such as distorted, blurred or loss of central vision. RVO usually happens to individuals older than 50 years of age and is more common in patients with high blood pressure, diabetes, glaucoma, cardiovascular diseases, blood clotting disorders, or other inflammatory conditions.
If there is suspected RVO in patients, they will undergo testings such as an OCT and fluorescein angiogram which helps determine the severity and specific area of the blockage. From here the doctors can verify which type of RVO the patient has. These two types of retinal vein occlusion are central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) which is when the blockage occurs in the main vein leaving the optic nerve and branched retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) which is when the blockage occurs in one of the branches before reaching the main optic nerve vein.
RVO can be treated with intravitreal injection therapy using a number of medications. Retinal laser can also be performed and can be effective in reducing the swelling.